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the motor. The motor runs without any CPU in-

volvement. For more technical information see the

AVR Application Note AVR42778.

Automatic Shut-off PWMSignal

Many applications need to monitor the current con-

sumption so that it does not exceed a maximum lev-

el. This can easily be done with the analog compara-

tor AC. The AC measures the voltage (current in the

resistor) via a shunt register. If it exceeds a previous

configured threshold then the PWM signal should

stop immediately. Both examples below are using

Core Independent Peripherals. The PWM output sig-

nal can be stopped when an over current is detected

without interaction of the CPU.

Example of LED Lightning with TCA

and CCL

The Timer/Counter A0 generates the PWM for the

Light Emitting Diode (LED). The AC is used to detect

the overcurrent and the CCL is used to combine

these signals, so that if there is an overcurrent de-

tected then the PWM is automatically stopped. The

AC and the TCA0 are connected via the Event Sys-

tem to the CCL. The AC output signal and the PWM

are configured in the TRUTH table of the CCL, see

Figure 5. The PWM signal is fed through if the event

signal form so the AC is zero. If the over current is

detected, the AC event signal is oneand the output is

zero as long as there is an overcurrent.

Example of Motor Control with the


A BLDC motor is controlled by the TCD timer that

generates the two channels + two complementary

channels PWM signals to drive the four Metal-Ox-

ide Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor (MOS-

FETs) in an H-bridge. The AC is used to detect the

overcurrent in the motor with a shunt between the

motor and GND. The AC is connected via the Event

System to the Timer/Counter D0 (TCD). The TCD

features include fault handling. If the threshold of

the AC is exceeded (over current detected) then an

event is signaled to the TCD and the PWMs are

stopped automatically.

Measuring Time-Of-Flight

Time of flight measurement is used to measure

the distance a signal travels. The measurements

starts when the signal leaves the transceiver and

stops when it’s detected by the receiver. With

the time and the known m/s of the signal the dis-

tance can be calculated. In the below example

we are measuring the distance with ultrasonic

signal. For that we need theCore Independent

Peripherals TCA0, TCB0, TCS0, AC and 2x CCL

and can compute the time of flight without CPU


Figure 6 shows the look up Table 1 (LUT1) gen-

erates the Transmitted Signal. TCA Out generates

the PWM signal and TCD Out B is the transmit

mask. The inverted transmit mask and the PWM

are logic AND combined and then generate the

transmit signal, which is shown by the LUT1 truth


LUT 0 generates the reflected signal. AC Out

gives the activity on the receive line and TCD Out A

is the receive mask. The inverted receive mask and

the "receive line" are logic AND combined gener-

ate the Reflected Signal, which is shown by the

LUT0 truth table.

The SR latch is reset with the first transmitted

signal and starts the counter in TCD. With the sig-

nal from reflected signal and when the SR latch is

set, the TCD counter is stopped. The time of flight

is now stored in the counter value of TCD without

any use of the CPU. The CPU is only needed for

the distance calculation where the time of flight is

multiplied with the speed of the signal. For more

technical information for ultrasonic distance mea-

surement see the AVR Application Note



The newATtiny1617/1616/1614/817/816/814/417

microcontroller series from Microchip adds innova-

tive Core Independent Peripherals (CIPs) to the ti-



family of microcontrollers. With these CIPs,

an application can react in real-time, with less soft-

ware overhead and lower current consumption than

without CIPs. These examples show that CIPs are

easy to set it up and that the real-time performance

is faster and needs less power consumption than

software-based solutions. Even with much higher

performance microcontrollers this level of real-time

performance cannot always be reached and, if pos-

sible, the power consumption would be several

times higher.

Figure 6:

Ultrasonic Time of

Flight Measuring

Figure 5: CCL Truth-Table for Fault Handling

Latecoere Group opens a new

manufacturing factory in Bulgaria

The Latecoere Group opened a new production

facility in Plovdiv, Bulgaria. The opening ceremony

on September 12 was attended by Latecoere’s

Chief Executive Officer Yannik Asuad and Bulgarian

Prime Minister Boyko Borissov. Some of the other

officials that attended were Deputy Prime Minister

Tomislav Donchev, Minister of Economy Emil Ka-

ranikolov, Mayor of Plovdiv Ivan Totev, Erik Lebe-

del, French Ambassador Stefan Delahai, Chairman

of the French-Bulgarian Chamber of Commerce and

Industry Serge Durand, Airbus Bulgaria Head, Tsve-

tan Simeonov, Chairman of the BCCI.

The Latecoere Group’s new plant is funded

through the Competitiveness Investment Program

of the Transformation Plan 2020. The Group aims

to expand the 5000-square-meter plant to 9000

square meters with a capacity of over 200 000

hours per year by the end of 2019. The total invest-

ment in the new plant by 2020 is expected to be

around EUR 15 million.

The facility will function as an assembly unit for

lifting-assemblies of aeronautical racks and aero-


Source: Latecoere Group

Viprotron presented new devices

at this year’s glasstec exhibition

From October 23 to 26 this year, Viprotron exhib-

ited its newest devices at the glasstec event in Dus-

seldorf, Germany. At Hall 14, Booth E33 the company

displayed the State-of-the-Art Anisotropy Scanner 2.0

for actual measurement and evaluation for Anisotro-

py (Iridescence) effects. A main focus was also the

new ECO Quality Scanner for automated glass quali-

ty scanning in factories. Another exclusive focus was

the Haze Scanner for quality control at toughening

(tempering/heat treating).

“This solution is brand new and for the first time

allows producers to identify excess ceramic roller

contact in a concentrated area of the glass that

leads to the incidence of white haze (roller abra-

sions/micro-scratching),“ explained Viprotron.

The company also presented their flagship prod-

uct - 3D Quality Scanner with 3 light detection chan-

nels which allow the identification of anything that

may cause a reject and offer the most consistent

level of quality to the customers.

Source: Viprotron